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Near & Middle East Titles:
Arabian Boundary Disputes
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ISBN: (13) 978-1-85207-400-5
Extent: 20 volumes, 18,000 pages

Editor: R. Schofield
ISBN: (10) 1-85207-400-0
Published: 1992
Paper: Printed on acid free paper
Binding: Library bindings with gilt finish
See sample pages: not available

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Arabian Boundary Disputes is designed as an historical and legal dossier on the development of the international boundaries within the Arabian peninsula, and includes material covering the Arabian peninsula´s most critical territorial disputes: Iran-Iraq, Iraq-Kuwait, Bahrain-Qatar and Saudi Arabia-Yemen. Each boundary is documented from its origins in international diplomacy up to 1992, the year of publication of this collection. In order to broaden the historical perspective and particularly to bring the documentary materials as close to the present as possible a wider range of international archival sources was used, and along with a wider geographical coverage and the inclusion of all pertinent contemporary materials, this differentiates Arabian Boundary Disputes from its forerunner, Arabian Boundaries.
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Historical Overview

Arabian Boundary Disputes is published in 20 volumes and extends to some 18,000 pages of documentary material, selected from that available in 1992, the year of publication.

The work is designed and presented as an historical and legal dossier on the development and current status of the international boundaries within the Arabian peninsula. A vast array of contemporary materials (up to and including 1992) is included to cover developments in the Arabian peninsula´s most critical territorial disputes: Iran-Iraq, Iraq-Kuwait, Bahrain-Qatar and Saudi Arabia-Yemen. These complement an expertly-selected and varied collection of archival materials which trace in great detail the development of state territory within Arabia.

A wider geographical coverage (see contents outline), the inclusion of all pertinent contemporary materials and the utilisation of a far greater and more international range of archival sources, differentiates Arabian Boundary Disputes from its immensely successful forerunner, Arabian Boundaries.

Detailed contents list for each volume, editor´s notes for each international boundary under review and a painstakingly researched and referenced introduction to Arabian Boundary Disputes keep readers fully informed of the background to the documents they are viewing; separation of the documentary records of each Arabian territorial limit into Key Documents and other sections dealing with the various geographical areas of the border zone means that each volume in Arabian Boundary Disputes can be used either as a clear and concise reference guide or alternatively as a reliable, representative and carefully-constructed historical work.

For both the policy specialist and interested generalist Arabian Boundary Disputes is a ground-breaking anthology. It warrants the attention of all those with a genuine interest in seeing territorial stability within the Arabian peninsula maintained and, in some cases, restored. Only by fully understanding the origins of current problems can we cope to live with them in the future.
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Documentary Importance

Much of the historical documentation in these volumes is drawn from British Government archives in the Public Records Office and the British Library (Oriental and India Office Collections). Crown copyright material is reproduced by consent of the National Archives, London.
In order to broaden the historical perspective and particularly to bring documentary materials as close as possible to the present day, the following sources have also been used: United Nations: documents relating, inter alia, to Saudi Arabia-Yemen, Iran-Iraq and Iraq-Kuwait; USA: Foreign Broadcasts Information Service; USA: State Department: Records at the National Archives; USA: State Department: Office of the Geographer; British Broadcasting Corporation: Summary of World Broadcasts.
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Arrangement of volumes

1  Iran-Iraq I, 1639-1909: Key Documents, 1639-1907 / Shatt al-Arab, 1843-1908 / Land Border, 1911-1908

2  Iran-Iraq II, 1909-1937: Key Documents, 1910-1937 / Shatt al-Arab, 1909-1935 / Land Border, 1911-1934

3  Iran-Iraq III, 1938-1992: Key Documents, 1938-1991 / Shatt al-Arab, 1939-1990 / Land Border, 1942-1992

4  Iraq-Kuwait I, 1830-1940: Key Documents, 1899-1940 / Land Border, 1906-1939

5  Iraq-Kuwait II, 1941-1992: Key Documents, 1947-1992 / Umm Qasr, Warba and Bubiyan, 1941-1991 / Land Border, 1939-1991

6  Saudi Arabia-Iraq, 1922-1991: Key Documents, 1922-1981/ Evolution of Border, 1923-1991

7  Jordan-Saudi Arabia 1923-1965: Key Documents, 1925-1965 / Evolution of Border, 1923-1965

8  Syria-Iraq, 1915-1935: Key Documents, 1915-1933 / Evolution of Border, 1918-1935
9: Part 1: Turkey-Iraq, 1919-1946: Key Documents, 1919-1927 / Evolution of Border, 1922-1946
    Part 2: Iraq-Jordan, 1926-1992: Key Documents, 1932-1984 / Evolution of Border, 1926-1992

10  Saudi Arabia-Kuwait I, 1829-1991: Key Documents, 1913-1969 / Evolution of the southern Kuwaiti land border, 1829-1988

11 Saudi Arabia-Kuwait II, 1908-1991: Evolution of the Neutral Zone borders, 1933-1961 / Saudi-Kuwait and Neutral Zone offshore limits, 1939-1967 / Umm al Maradim, Qaru and Kubbar, 1908-1991

12  Bahrain-Saudi Arabia, 1904-1958: Key Documents, 1958 / Evolution of Maritime Boundary, 1904-1958

13  Bahrain-Qatar I, 1818-1992: Key Documents, 1868-1957 / Hawar Islands, 1830-1982

14  Bahrain-Qatar II, 1818-1992: Zubarah, 1818-1960

15  Bahrain-Qatar III, 1818-1992: Dibal, Jarada and the Seabed Boundary, 1830-1992

16  Part 1: Saudi Arabia-Qatar, 1871-1965: Key Documents, 1913-1965 / Evolution of Border, 1871-1961
      Part 2: Qatar-United Arab Emirates I,1837-1969: Key Documents 1869-1969

17  Qatar-United Arab Emirates II, 1837-1969: Khawr al Udaid, 1837-1960 / Halul island and the seabed boundary, 1830-1961

18  Saudi Arabia-United Arab Emirates, 1913-1974: Key Documents, 1913-1974 / Evolution of Border, 1920-1961

19  Part I: United Arab Emirates-Sultanate of Oman, 1855-1977: Key Documents, 1934-1977 / Evolution of Border, 1855-1960
      Part II: Sultanate of Oman-Saudi Arabia 1913-1991: Key Documents, 1913-1991 / Evolution of Border, 1920-1957

20  Saudi Arabia-Yemen, 1913-1992: Key Documents, 1913-1992 / Evolution of western land border, 1913-1991 / Evolution of eastern land border, 1932-1988

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Contents Outline

Volumes 1-3: Iran-Iraq, 1639-1992

STATUS at 1992: With his astounding volte-face two weeks into the invasion of Kuwait, Saddam Hussain apparently recognised a thalweg boundary delimitation once more along the Shatt al-´Arab, though there has been no formal follow-up to its development.
Volumes 4-5: Iraq-Kuwait, 1830-1992

STATUS at 1992: The United Nations have announced a land-boundary delimitation (April 1992) which is essentially a refined interpretation of earlier British approximations of the boundary (1940 and 1951): Iraq withdrew from the activities of the commission after rejecting the 16 April 1992 decision/recommendation. 
 Volume 6: Saudi Arabia-Iraq, 1922-1991

STATUS at 1992: As confrontation with the allied forces loomed early in 1991, Iraq cancelled all international undertakings entered into with Saudi Arabia since 1968: Saudi Arabia responded by registering all previous boundary agreements negotiated with Iraq at the United Nations in June 1991, the first instance in which the Wahhabi state had deposited territorial instruments at this institution. 
Volume 7: Jordan-Saudi Arabia, 1923-1965

STATUS at 1992: Despite the apparent resolution of the Aqaba question with the agreement of 1965, prevarication early in 1992 suggested that the issue was not quite extinct. Any remaining questions which the Saudis may have harboured had certainly subsided by the time Prince Bandar visited a recuperating King Hussein in hospital during August 1992.
Volume 8: Syria-Iraq, 1915-1935

STATUS at 1992: all juridical disputes proper over the border had disappeared by the mid-1930s. Functional disputes concerning the permeability of this boundary to the movement of people, goods and even water have been the order of the day with the rival factions of the Ba´th Party firmly entrenched in government in Damascus and Baghdad. 
Volume 9 (Part 1): Turkey-Iraq, 1919-1946

STATUS at 1992: No juridically-based disputes: transboundary resource disputes proliferate - most importantly successive river disputes (Tigris and Euphrates): presence of opposition Kurdish groups in the border zone frequently dictates border policy of Baghdad and Ankara.
Sevres and Lausanne treaties, 1920-1923
Volume 9 (Part 2): Iraq-Jordan, 1926-1992

STATUS at 1992: No juridicial disputes: every indication that the 1984 modification of the boundary is accepted by both states: Aqaba route became very important to Iraq during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War: is likely to be so again once sanctions are relaxed.
Volume 10-11: Saudi Arabia-Kuwait And The Neutral Zone, 1829-1991

STATUS at 1992: An agreement of 1988 reportedly disposed of all remaining points of confusion concerning the incorporation of the Neutral Zone into the state territories of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Saudi Arabia still insists that Qaru and Umm al Maradim should be subject to some sort of common regime to reflect their position offshore of the former Neutral Zone.
Volume 12: Bahrain-Saudi Arabia, 1904-1958

STATUS at 1992: the 1958 accord was the first maritime boundary delimitation to be agreed in the Gulf, recognising the Bu Saafah Shoal as a Saudi feature but specifying that all future revenue accruing from the associated oilfield would be shared in perpetuity. The most spectacular and permanent infringement of the seabed boundary in recent years has been the construction of the King Fahd Causeway link between the two states.
Volumes 13-15: Bahrain-Qatar, 1818-1992

STATUS at 1992: Before the international courts can pass opinion on the respective claims of Bahrain and Qatar to the Hawar Islands and the Dibal and Jarada shoals, the present bout of procedural wrangling must first be dealt with. Whereas Qatar maintains that it was within its rights when unilaterally referring the dispute to the courts during the summer of 1991, Bahrain insists that an agenda covering all possible points of dispute between the two sides (this might even include Zubarah in one way or another) should be agreed, then jointly submitted.
Volume 16 (Part 1): Saudi Arabia-Qatar, 1871-1965

STATUS at 1992: For 27 years most observers had assumed that the delimitation introduced by the 1965 agreement was accepted by Riyadh and Doha: atlases recently produced in both states depict the same line. Early in 1992, however, Saudi Arabia closed an important transit route to Qatari traffic. The Khafus border post incident of 30 September 1992, which resulted in 3 fatalities, caused the Qatari cabinet to sever but not to abrogate the 1965 agreement.
Volumes 16 (Part 2) And 17: Qatar-United Arab Emirates, 1837-1969
STATUS at 1992: With the conclusion of the 1974 Saudi-Abu Dhabi border agreement, granting Saudi Arabia a 25km land corridor through the Khawr al-Udaid, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates could no longer strictly claim to be neighbours, though the 1974 agreement was, in truth, only a formalisation of a situation which had pertained for decades. Saudi Arabia´s land corridor entitles it to no rights over the continental shelf, however, so the 1969 seabed boundary negotiated between Qatar and Abu Dhabi still holds good. 
Volume 18: Saudi Arabia-Abu Dhabi, 1913-1974

STATUS at 1992: Boundary introduced by the August 1974 agreement has for the most part been demarcated, though the coordinates of the agreement have never been released to the public. Some difficulties have been caused by ARAMCO´s desire in 1992 to exploit the Saibah field, which straddles the 1974 boundary at the southern tip of the Sabkhat Matti. Though 90% of the field (known as Zarara in UAE) unquestionably lies within Saudi territory, there were reports that the 1974 agreement (or an annex to the instrument agreed at the same time) also specified that the field could only be developed jointly in a manner akin to the old Saudi-Kuwaiti Neutral Zone.
Volume 19 (Part 1): United Arab Emirates-Sultanate Of Oman, 1855-1977

STATUS at 1992: Many sections of the punctuated boundary introduced as a result of Julian Walker´s exertions during the late 1950s/early 1960s have now been demarcated. It is likely that a number of small disputes survive to this day. The conclusion of the Oman-Saudi border agreement on 21 March 1990 seemed to give fresh impetus to efforts to finalise the Oman-United Arab Emirates delimitation. For during May 1991 the two governments set up a joint committee to discuss bilateral issues including the border.
Volume 19 (Part 2): Sultanate Of Oman-Saudi Arabia, 1913-1991

STATUS at 1992: Saudi Arabia apparently agreed to respect long-standing Omani territorial claims (the modified Riyadh Line declared by Britain during August 1955 and unilaterally imposed just two months later) in the boundary agreement of March 1990, which was ratified during May 1991. The March 1990 delimitation was then considered. The text of the March 1990 boundary agreement has not yet been made public. While it certainly has not yet been registered with the United Nations, reliable reports suggest that a copy of the text was supplied to the Secretariat of the Arab League in Cairo. 
Volume 20: Saudi Arabia-Yemen, 1913-1992

STATUS at 1992: Other than in its western reaches, which were settled by the 1934 Treaty of Taif and then demarcated during the following two years, the Saudi-Yemen border remains to be settled. Traditionally there has been a large overlap in the territorial claims of the two sides in the sand and steppelands to the north-east of the Wadi Hadramawt. The continuing marginality of tribes to the central authority of both the San´a and Riyadh governments in the central stretch of the disputed border zone adds further to the difficulties of establishing a clear boundary line. 

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Key documents

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Editor's Introduction

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Related Titles:
Arabian Boundaries 1853–1960
Arabian Boundaries 1961–1965
Arabian Treaties 1600–1960
Diplomacy in the Near and Middle East 1535–1956
Documentary Studies in Arabian Geopolitics: Iran in the Persian Gulf 1820–1966
Documentary Studies in Arabian Geopolitics: Lower Gulf Islands: Abu Musa And The Tunbs Dispute
Documentary Studies in Arabian Geopolitics: South-West Arabia: Saudi Arabia–Yemen Dispute
Documentary Studies in Arabian Geopolitics: The Iraq–Kuwait Dispute 1830–1994
Documentary Studies in Arabian Geopolitics: UAE: Internal Boundaries And The Boundary With Oman
Iran–Iraq Border 1840–1958, The
Islands and Maritime Boundaries of the Gulf 1798–1960
Israel: Boundary Disputes with Arab Neighbours 1946–1964
Palestine Boundaries 1833–1947