Author:N/A ISBN: (10) 1-85207-360-8 Published: 1992 Paper: Printed on acid free paper Binding: Library bindings with gilt finish See sample pages:
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This title is a comprehensive series of British administration reports for Mesopotamia (Iraq) from the outset of World War I up to the independence of Iraq. It includes accounts of the British campaign against the Turks in Iraq (including the siege of Kut) 1914-1918, the administration of the vilayets of Basra, Baghdad and Mosul up to 1920; also the complete series of administration reports under the British Mandate over Iraq 1920-1932, including the final report submitted to the League of Nations. These reports provide vital historical background to recent and current events in Iraq, especially concerning regional and tribal affairs and civil administration.
The country that is today Iraq consisted, in 1914, of the three Turkish Vilayets of Basrah, Baghdad and Mosul. The British conquest of that territory began one day after the outbreak of war between Great Britain and Turkey on 5th November 1914, when Indian Expeditionary Force ´D´ with Percy Cox as Chief Political Officer silenced a Turkish fort on the Fao Peninsula, and then went on to attack Basrah which fell shortly afterwards on 22nd November. The occupation of southern Iraq (the Basrah vilayet) was completed with the capture of Amarah and Nasiriyah in the summer of 1915.
The British advance into central Iraq was delayed for a time by their defeat at Kut, when the garrison under General Townsend surrendered unconditionally to the Turks on 29th April 1916 after a siege lasting 140 days. Control of the British and British-Indian Army (now renamed the Mesopotamia Expeditionary Force) had already been transferred from the India Office to the War Office. This defeat prompted a complete reorganization of the expeditionary force, culminating in the appointment of General Maude as Commander -in-Chief. Baghdad fell to the British on 11th March 1917 and the occupation of the rest of central Iraq was completed soon after. In northern Iraq (the Vilayet of Mosul) Kirkuk was captured in May 1918, lost two weeks later, and finally occupied in October 1918; the armistice signed at the end of October 1918 brought the city of Mosul and the rest of the Vilayet under British control.
The future of these three occupied Vilayets of Mesopotamia was the subject of much discussion after the armistice, with the people of Iraq looking forward to immediate independence - nationalist feeling being heightened by the declaration of an independent Arab kingdom in Syria under the Hashemite Faysal. But the announcement on 28th April 1920 from the peace conference at San Remo that a mandate over Iraq would be offered to Great Britain put paid to these hopes of immediate independence for Iraq, and an armed insurrection against British rule broke out in July 1920. This insurrection was put down by the British by the autumn of 1920, but with considerable effort and at a cost of 40 million pounds.
The British mandate over Iraq began in October 1920, but the lessons of the insurrection had been learnt. The proposals that had been announced on 17th June 1920 before the outbreak of the insurrection (for Iraqi ministers and high officials, with a considerable amount of internal self-government leading to full eventual independence) now became official policy, and it became the duty of Sir Percy Cox who returned as Commissioner in mid-October to implement that programme. The choice of the Hashemite Faysal (recently ejected by the French from Damascus) as King of Iraq was approved by a referendum in July 1921 and he was enthroned officially on 23rd August 1921. During the 1920s the borders of the new state with Transjordan, the Nejd under ´Abdul-Aziz Al Sa´ud, and Kuwait were secured and an increasing amount of the government of the country was undertaken by Iraqis. The British hoped for an end to the mandate and complete independence for Iraq in 1931 - this proved premature, and independence was finally achieved in October 1932 when Iraq became a member of the League of Nations.
This collection presents the complete series of administration reports produced under the British Mandate over Iraq 1920-1932, from the outset of World War I to the final report submitted to the League of Nations. It includes accounts of the British campaign against the Turks in Iraq 1914-1918 (including the seige of Kut) and the administration of the vilayets of Basra, Baghdad and Mosul up to 1920. Regional reports are available from many of cities including Amarah, Arbil, Baghdad, Basra, Diwaniyah, Kirkuk, Mosul, Nasriyah, Qurnah, Samarra, Sulaimaniyah, etc. These reports provide vital historical background to recent and current events in Iraq, especially concerning regional and tribal affairs, and civil administration requirements.
The Administration Reports in these volumes cover all aspects of the government of the occupied territories.
Volume One • Review of the Civil Administration of the Occupied Territories of Iraq 1914-1918 • Administration Report November 1914-March 1915 • Report on the Judicial Department June 1915 - December 1915 • Reports for the period ending 31st March 1916: Land Revenue; Crown Lands; Land Registration; Customs; Excise; Salt; Stamps; Fish Tax; Tobacco; Education; Waqf • Administration Reports for the year ending 31st March 1917: Basrah Sanjaq; Qurnah; Qalat Salih; Ali Gharbi; Nasiriyah; Suq-ash-Shuyukh; Hammar Lake; Ashar • Administration Reports for the year ending 31st March 1917: Law Courts; Revenue Board, Basrah; Military Governorate, Basrah; Deputy Military Governor, Ashar; Civil Jail; Civil Surgeon; Health Officer; Military Governorate, Nasiriyah; Port Health Officer, Basrah; Port Officer, Basrah; Customs Administration; Financial Department; Supervisor Imperial Ottoman Bank • Administration Report for 1917 for the Baghdad Vilayet
Volume Two • Administration Reports for 1918: Samarra; Ba´qubah; Khaniqin; Samawah; Shamiyah; Hillah; Dulaim; Basrah; Qurnah; Amarah; Kut; Nasriyah; Kirkuk; Kuwait; Muntafik; Suk; Shattrah; Qalat • Administration Reports for 1918: Department of Education;Auqaf; Civil and Criminal Justice in Basrah; Civil Jail, Basrah; Port Officer´s Department, Basrah; Customs, Basrah; Customs, Baghdad; Department of Controller of Hostile Trading Concerns; Civil Works; Government Press, Baghdad - ´Baghdad Times´; Government Press, Basrah - ´Basrah Times´ • Report on Civil Justice, Baghdad for 1918. • Administration Report, Revenue Department, for 1918: Basrah; Baghdad • Note on irrigation works, Irrigation Directorate, Mesopotamia Expeditionary Force, up to November 1918 • Administration Report, Irrigation Directorate, February 1918-March 1919
Volume Four • Administration Reports for 1919: Mosul; Basrah; Kodah; Hillah; Koi Sanjaq • Administration Reports for 1919: Judicial Department; Educational Department; Arab and Kurdish levies; Revenue Department; Health Department; Agriculture Directorate; Civil Jail; Spring Harvest; Tapu Department
Volume Five • Administration Reports for 1920: Amarah; Arbil; Diyalah; Dulaim; Kirkuk; Mosul; Muntafiq; Musaiyib; Samarra; Suleimaniyah; Tapu; Arab & Kurdish levies 1915-1920; Arab & Kurdish levies 1920-1921; Agriculture; Justice; Police (Basrah); Police (amalgamated); Health (Iraq); Baghdad Medical Society; Health (Baghdad); Land acquisition; Jail; Civil Veterinary; Reformatory; Customs; Audit 1919-1920, 1920-1921 • Gertrude Bell´s Review of the Civil Administration of Mesopotamia, 1914-1920 • Supplement to Gertrude Bell´s Report - ´Note on political developments in Mesopotamia subsequent to October 1st 1920´.
• The first Mandate Report with appendices, October 1920-March 1922 • Mandate Report, April 1922-March 1923 • Mandate Report, April 1923-December 1924
Volume Seven • Report on Finances, Administration and Condition of Iraq, October 1920-March 1922 • Administration Report of the Muntafiq Division, 1921 • Report on Iraq Administration, October 1920-March 1922 • Report on Iraq Administration, April 1922-March 1923 • Report on the Administration of Iraq, April 1923-December 1924
Volume Eight • Mandate Report for 1925 • Mandate Report for 1926 • Mandate Report for 1927
• Mandate Report for 1928 • Mandate Report for 1929 • Mandate Report for 1930
Volume Ten • Mandate Report for 1920-1931 • Mandate Report for 1931 • Mandate Report, January-October 1932